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70 There using barcode encoding for .net control to generate, create upc a image in .net applications. Microsoft Office Word Website HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD 35:28 stipulates that the ki ller may return to his patrimonial estate, hl`m. Deut 19:12 mentions that the killer departed from his town, /ry . Joshua 20, however, does contain one verse that constitutes a departure from Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19.

Josh 20:4 mandates that before the fugitive is permitted to enter the city of refuge, a hearing must take place in order to determine whether he is eligible for admission to the city at all. The accidental killer is to be stopped at the gate of the city of refuge. He can only gain admittance after he presents his case to the elders of the city of refuge that the slaying was accidental.

This appears to be separate from his trial, which must still take place before the assembly (Josh 20:6). The hearing is apparently a way to prevent intentional slayers from entering the city of refuge at all. This new element, the procedure of admission in Josh 20:4, has a relationship to certain elements in Deuteronomy.

In Deut 19:12, the elders of the slayer s city play a role in determining his guilt and, if he is found culpable, deliver him to the blood avenger. City elders resolve disputes in Deut 22:13 21 and 25:5 10. In the same vein, Josh 20:4, in introducing a procedure of admission, assigns it to the elders, albeit of the city of refuge, not the elders of the killer s city, as in Deut 19:12.

This is appropriate since the elders of the city of refuge are protecting it from the presence of intentional killers. In addition, the elaboration in Josh 20:5 6 that the accidental slayer will not be delivered to the blood avenger and will live in the city of refuge, b`yw . .

. wrgsyAalw, uses language reminiscent of Deut 23:16 17, which mandates that an escaped slave will not be delivered over (rygst) to his master and will live among (b`y Am[) the Israelites.71 How can the presence of a new procedure in Deuteronomic language that does not appear in Deuteronomy be explained The simplest explanation is that Joshua 20 is a Deuteronomic reworking of a Priestly kernel.

72 In fact, one manuscript of the LXX, Codex Vaticanus, contains none of the Deuteronomic additions, including Josh 20:4, and therefore provides evidence for the independent existence of a Priestly pericope. The new procedure in Josh 20:4 was worded in Deuteronomic style, although its content differs signi cantly. While the other versions, Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19, eventually restrict asylum to accidental killers, Joshua 20 limits initial entrance into the city of refuge only to accidental killers.

The probability of a Deuteronomic reworking of Priestly material is further heightened by the fact that where Joshua 20 has parallels to both Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19, it is invariably closer to, or identical with, Deuteronomy 19. This makes sense since both are part of the Deuteronomic literature. A Deuteronomic author, later than both Numbers 35 and Deuteronomy 19, designed this new.

71 Rof , e Joshua 20: Historico-Litera ry Criticism Illustrated, in Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism (ed. Jeffrey H. Tigay; Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), 137 138.

72 Ibid., 141 143..

DEVELOPMENT OF PLACES OF REFUGE IN THE BIBLE procedure to al lay any anxiety over the presence of intentional killers in a city of refuge by preventing them from gaining entrance in the rst place. The intentional slayer has no way of escaping the blood avenger even for a limited time in a city of refuge until he is convicted and handed over to the avenger to be killed. The legal sources of the Pentateuch P and D differ as a direct result of their distinctive ideological and theological programs.

The statute in Joshua is an attempt to reconcile these differences. I have shown that the cities of refuge were not a Deuteronomic innovation nor were they an innovation of the early monarchy. However, there may have been a development from sanctuary asylum to the cities of refuge at a glacial speed, starting with the ability of others besides killers to seek sanctuary at an altar and the indication in the Psalms that the Sanctuary was a place of refuge from danger.

The development of homicide in the Hebrew Bible follows along the lines of a steady-state theory, with the recognition that even a steady-state universe experiences change from time to time..
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