HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD generate, create upc symbol none with .net projects Microsoft's .NET Framework Just as the theological and UPC-A for .NET social program of Numbers informs the statutes establishing the cities of refuge in that book, so too does the social and theological program of Deuteronomy shape its statutes on homicide. Deuteronomy manifests anxiety over the possibility that !dh lag might commit an accidental homicide because he could kill any slayer with impunity outside the city of refuge Whoever came with his fellow into the forest to cut wood: as his hand swings the ax to cut down the tree, the ax-head falls off the handle and hits the other so that he dies that man shall ee to one of these cities and live, lest the blood avenger pursuing him in his hot anger, overtakes him and slays him because the distance is too great, yet he was not liable to the death penalty because he was not hostile to him in the past (Deut 19:5 6).

Deuteronomy is concerned with the slaying of the accidental killer and the effect it would have upon the Israelite people. In contrast to the Priestly law, where the slaying of the accidental killer does not incur culpability at all, the Deuteronomic statute evinces the belief that the killing of a fugitive who has not yet reached a refuge does. In his case, the fugitive s status as an accidental or intentional killer is not yet clear: He may potentially be an accidental killer, whose death is unwarranted.

In an ironic transformation, the same term for culpability for the victim, yqn !d, innocent blood (Deut 19:13), is used to refer to culpability for the killer slain before he reaches the city of refuge (Deut 19:10). If the blood avenger manages to overtake the fugitive and kill him, the Israelite people as a whole are responsible, according to Deut 19:10. The Priestly law, by contrast, avers that the land, not the people, will be polluted by the presence of the unpunished slayer, not the death of the accidental slayer.

The Priestly law is concerned with the purity and the pollution of space, the Deuteronomic with that of the Israelite people. The Priestly law is concerned with the pervading presence of God in the midst of Israel, while Deuteronomy focuses on the conduct and fate of the Israelite people.55 Indeed, Deuteronomy is completely unconcerned with the immanence of God: for Deuteronomy, the Temple in Jerusalem is not the dwelling place of God; it is the place where God causes his name to dwell.

The Priestly law is concerned with the polluting effects of a slaying, whereas D is concerned with the social aspects of the law. Like the statutes in Numbers, Deuteronomy s places of refuge are divorced from any link with the sacred or the priesthood, but this is informed by the Deuteronomic trend toward secularization and the separation of sacred and secular. This tendency is part of the larger program of Deuteronomy.

56 Warfare, for example, is stripped of its sacred ritual in Deuteronomy. There. 55 Moshe 56 Weinfeld,. Weinfeld, Deuteronomy 1 11 ( AB; New York: Doubleday, 1991), 25. Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomic School, 233 243. The term secularization may be too strong a term for this aspect of Deuteronomy s program, as Weinfeld himself notes ( On Demythologization and Secularization in Deuteronomy, IEJ 23 [1973],.

DEVELOPMENT OF PLACES OF REFUGE IN THE BIBLE is no mention of the soundin g of the priestly horns or of the plunder that is to be dedicated to the sanctuary.57 The use of the ark and the holy vessels is missing in Deuteronomic warfare. Even the function of the priests is secularized.

In P, the priests are to sound their horns so that the warriors are remembered by YHWH (Num 10:9). In D, by contrast, the priest addresses the people to inspire their courage (Deut 20:1 4). This secularization is carried through in the Deuteronomic tradition of the cities of refuge.

The Levites, who are considered the Priestly class in Deuteronomy, are not connected with the cities of refuge. The high priest is not a factor in the stay of the accidental homicide in a city of refuge. Like Numbers, the Deuteronomic refuges are established on the basis of geographic considerations: The country is to be divided up into three parts with a city of refuge established in each area so as to enable a slayer to seek refuge ef ciently.

Unlike the refuges in Numbers, the tally of the cities of refuge in Deuteronomy is complex because, as the present text of Deuteronomy reads, the calculation is linked to a multistaged conquest, in contrast to the comprehensive conquest in Numbers. Three stages are indicated in the establishment of the cities of refuge. In Deut 4:41 43, Moses designates three cities after the territory east of the Jordan is conquered.

58 In Deut 19:1 7, the Israelites are commanded to designate three cities after the conquest of the Land of Israel. In Deut 19:8 9, three more cities are to be added after additional conquests. If we were to read the chapters of Deuteronomy in succession, the total number of the cities of refuge is nine.

However, in Deut 19:1 7, the command to set up three cities after the conquest of the Land of Israel is presented as a new injunction without any reference to the establishment of earlier cities in the territory east of the Jordan River.59 Indeed, in Deut 19:7 9, the text reads: When the LORD your God enlarges your territory . .

. you shall add three more cities to these three. If the law was to include the three cities mentioned in Deut 4:41 43 as well as the three established by Deut 19:1 7, it would have stated these six.

It clearly appears that the author of Deuteronomy 19 did not know of Moses action in Deut 4:41 43. In fact, Deut 4:41 43 is placed between Moses lengthy orations of Deut 1:1 4:40 and 4:44 26:19, an appropriate place for an insertion. Deut 19:8 9, the command to establish three more cities after additional conquests in the land of Israel, is apparently parenthetical to the command in Deut 19:1 7.

60 Deut 19:10 does not refer back to verse 9 but to verse 7. 230). Cf. Milgrom, The Alle Universal Product Code version A for .

NET ged Demythologization and Secularization in Deuteronomy, IEJ 23 (1973), 156 161. 57 Compare Num 10:9; 31:6, 50 54; Judg 7:19 20; 2 Sam 8:11; 11:11. 58 This section and Josh 20:8 are almost identical, but it is dif cult to say which has priority.

Cf. Auld, Cities of Refuge in Israelite Tradition, 138. 59 Rof , History of the Cities of Refuge, 222.

e 60 Ibid., 222 224..

Copyright © . All rights reserved.