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27 This using visual studio .net tocompose barcode code39 for asp.net web,windows application Microsoft SQL Server POLLUTION AND HOMICIDE The answer lie s in the status of the high priest. Many scholars have recognized the expiatory aspect of his death.29 Only the high priest has the ability to purge guilt for others.

Two examples may suf ce as proof: 1) In Lev 4:13 21, he30 makes expiation for the entire community. 2) The gold plate that the high priest wears on his forehead acts as expiation for the guilt the people incur (Exod 28:36 38).31 The death of the high priest, whether soon upon the con nement of the accidental slayer or after many years, would serve as expiation for the killing.

An animal sacri ce would not be suf cient. Only a human death can undo the killing of a human being, even if it is accidental. The accidental killer must remain in the city of refuge until the offense he has committed has been purged by the death of the high priest, who alone can expiate the guilt of others.

32 The stay of the accidental killer in the city of refuge has a cultic valence. According to Numbers 35, after the high priest s death, the accidental murderer is no longer pursued by !dh lag, because the expiatory death of the high priest is accepted by !dh lag. Deuteronomy secularizes the stay of the accidental killer, a tendency that is already at work in Deuteronomy s conceptualization of the cities of refuge.

There is no mention in Deut 19:1 9 of a requirement that the accidental killer be detained within the con nes of the city. Yet the text does not specify that he can leave the refuge at all. Deut 19:6 identi es the hot anger of the blood avenger as the impetus for the fugitive s ight to the city of refuge.

The implication, then, is that the accidental killer can depart when the anger of the blood avenger is appeased. S. R.

Driver extrapolates from the speci cation of the emotions of the blood avenger that the length of the accidental killer s stay in the city of refuge depends entirely on the feelings of the blood avenger.33 When the blood avenger calms down and re ects on what occurred, according to Driver, he will realize that it was only an accident and will no longer seek to kill the slayer. Of course, it is possible that the avenger s rage will never subside, and the accidental slayer will then be forced to remain in the city of refuge until the avenger dies or the slayer s own death.

Alexander Rof argues that an emotional reconciliation is not suf cient.34 e After the emotions settle, he supposes, the city elders will arrange a monetary settlement. The accidental killer will not have to be concerned about the hot anger of the blood avenger once the victim s family is paid compensation.

The victim s family has the power to allow the accidental slayer. 29 E.g.,.

Erwin Merz, Di e Blutrache bei den Israeliten (BWAT 20; Leipzig: J. C. Hinrich, 1916), 132; N.

M. Nicolsky, Das Asylrecht in Israel, 168 171. 30 The term anointed priest is H s term for head priest.

Cf. Lev 16:32. 31 This concept is re ected in rabbinic sources.

Cf. b. Makkot 11b.

32 While ancient Greek culture held that the accidental killer incurred pollution, once he reached foreign soil he was puri ed without the need for an expiatory ritual (Parker, Miasma, 118). 33 Driver, Deuteronomy, 232. 34 Rof , History of the Cities of Refuge, 235.

e. HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD freedom of mov ement. Although compensation is not explicitly mentioned in Deuteronomy, Rof notes that it is assumed as part of the process of rece onciliation in lesser degrees of unlawful death. Thus, ransom is explicitly preserved in the law of the goring ox, Exod 21:29 30, and the person who accidentally pushes a pregnant woman and causes harm in Exod 21:22 must pay a pecuniary mulct (as Rof interprets the passage).

The problem with e Rof s proof is that in these examples, a person redeeming himself by means e of this payment is under the sentence of death. The accidental killer, by contrast, has not been sentenced to death. The implication of the other statutes on homicide is that victims families were not permitted to take compensation at all.

For Rof to prove his claim, clearer evidence is required. e There is simply not enough evidence to ll in details about the fate of the accidental slayer according to Deuteronomy with one exception. Whatever happens to the killer according to Deuteronomy 19, he is not required to wait until the death of the high priest to leave the city of refuge.

There is no religious element to his stay there. Deuteronomy and Numbers concur on the punishment of the accidental slayer, his being forced for a period of time to stay in a city of refuge, but disagree on the reason; they concur on the fate of the accidental killer, but vary on the reason for his fate and concomitantly the timing of his eventual release. Deuteronomy as a whole evinces a general lack of interest in pollution and the sanctity of place and focuses on the holiness of the people.

35 The statutes on homicide in Deuteronomy 19 display, therefore, two concerns: 1) insuring that the intentional killer is put to death so that the evil is removed from the midst of the Israelites; and 2) protecting the accidental homicide from being killed so that his innocent blood is not spilled, imperiling the Israelites yet again. At the same time, the polluting effects of blood itself are not ignored in Deuteronomy.36 The rite of the elimination of bloodguilt mandated by Deut 21:1 9 re ects the perception that the blood of the victim has a physical reality that must be removed, as well as the concept that a slaying could pollute those in whose midst it occurred.

The blood must be removed ritually because the killer cannot be found and executed, the usual method of elimination: If, in the land which the Lord your God is giving to you, a corpse is found lying in open country, and it is not known who struck him.
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