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Logic Coverage in Software Insert pdf417 2d barcode in Software Logic Coverage

Logic Coverage use software pdf 417 implementation toproduce barcode pdf417 in software GS1 RSS do not include variable Software PDF417 c. The attractive aspect of using OBDDs to derive ACC or ICC tests is that a variety of existing tools can handle a relatively large number of clauses. The unattractive aspect is that for a predicate with N clauses, N different OBDDs for a given function are required, since the clause being attended to needs to be the last in the ordering.

To the knowledge of the authors, the use of OBDDs to derive ACC or ICC tests does not appear in the literature. Beizer s book [29] includes a chapter on DNF testing, including a variant of IC coverage for f , but not f , and an extensive development of Karnaugh maps. We do not address criteria de ned predicates expressed in conjunctive normal form (CNF).

The reason is that every DNF coverage criteria has a dual in CNF. Kuhn [194] developed the rst fault detection relations; this work was greatly expanded by Yu, Lau, and Chen, who developed much of the key material relating DNF coverage criteria to fault detecting ability. Two good papers to begin study of this topic are by Chen and Lau [63], which develops a variety of coverage criteria, including CUTPNFP, and Lau and Yu [202], which is the source for the fault class hierarchy shown in Figure 3.

6. In personal communications, Greg Williams and Gary Kaminski provided the authors with valuable assistance in organizing and expanding the DNF fault detection material. Greg Williams also developed the counterexample to show that UTPC and the ACC criteria do not share a subsumption relation.

. NOTES 1 In practice, this tho pdf417 2d barcode for None ught turned out to be the collective effort of many researchers, who published dozens of papers over a period of several decades. 2 Old hands at testing may recognize and even be tired of the triangle example. It is used as a teaching tool for the same reasons it has staying power in the literature: it s a familiar problem; the control structure is interesting enough to illustrate most issues; and it does not use language features that make this analysis really hard, such as loops and indirect references.

This version of TriTyp is a bit overly complicated, but that does help illustrate the concepts. 3 The notion of mutation operators developed in the 5 is closely related to the notion of fault classes presented here..

Input Space Partitioning In a very fundamental wa pdf417 for None y, all testing is about choosing elements from the input space of the software being tested. The criteria presented previously can be viewed as de ning ways to divide the input space according to the test requirements. The assumption is that any collection of values that satis es the same test requirement will be just as good.

Input space partitioning takes that view in a much more direct way. The input domain is de ned in terms of the possible values that the input parameters can have. The input parameters can be method parameters and global variables, objects representing current state, or user-level inputs to a program, depending on what kind of software artifact is being analyzed.

The input domain is then partitioned into regions that are assumed to contain equally useful values from a testing perspective, and values are selected from each region. This way of testing has several advantages. It is fairly easy to get started because it can be applied with no automation and very little training.

The tester does not need to understand the implementation; everything is based on a description of the inputs. It is also simple to tune the technique to get more or fewer tests. Consider an abstract partition q over some domain D.

The partition q de nes a set of equivalence classes, which we simply call blocks, Bq .1 The blocks are pairwise disjoint, that is bi b j = , i = j; bi , b j Bq and together the blocks cover the domain D, that is b= D.
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