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Download at using none toembed none for web,windows application ISO Specification 7 Cultural Change Experience defining soft ware systems development processes. Experience as a software systems development customer. This experience can include interfacing with vendors of off-the shelf software products trying to work out problems with the products.

Software engineering teaching experience (including publication of papers and books), preferably at professional conferences as opposed to the classroom. Regarding the teaching experience, it is interesting to note that the credentials of publications can work against a PEG member if not handled carefully. A PEG staffed with full-time people can be perceived as an ivory tower organization that has no sense of what it takes to get the job done.

If PEG members have written textbooks, they run the risk of having their ADPE work being labeled academic, with little or no connection to the real world of doing software systems development. Once this label is affixed, the people working on projects tend to ignore the ADPE work turned out by such individuals. One way to avoid this scenario is for PEG staff to work closely with project teams to show them on the job how the guidance in ADPE elements can play itself out in the real world to the benefit of all involved.

For example, we believe that a key element of the software systems development process is independent product assurance review. A PEG staff member should review a document to show others the way that it is done, and the value it adds to project work. Nothing can raise the credibility of the PEG staff in the eyes of others more than demonstrating the process on real work.

Another comment is in order regarding the software engineering teaching experience. People, particularly project managers, who do not want to participate in the ADPE way may use the PEG textbook and publication credential for disinformation purposes. That is, such managers will convey to their staffs that the ADPE way is academic because it comes from a textbook.

They will then assert that the ADPE way has little or no applicability to their work. If senior management directs subordinate management and staff to follow the ADPE way, this disinformation attack can be contained if not thwarted. This senior management direction can take many forms.

For example, a senior manager can simply deny a subordinate manager s requests for going around the ADPE way. Or, a senior manager can tie a subordinate manager s salary review to ADPE compliance. Of course, if a senior manager gets inundated with requests for relief from the ADPE way from a majority of subordinate managers, then it might be that the ADPE is out of sync with business reality.

However, sometimes there is a fine line between organizational insurrection and simple resistance to cultural change. As we discuss in a subsequent section, it is part of the job of seller senior management to sort out where the organization is on this resistance spectrum. One way to establish PEG credibility in the eyes of others that we have found practical is to have at least one PEG member also concurrently serve as a tech-.

7 Cultural Change nical manager. Such an ind ividual can serve, say, half time on the PEG staff and half time as a front-line technical manager responsible for one or more software systems development projects. This arrangement provides a downin-the-trenches feedback mechanism that can give the PEG good insight into what makes sense to institute and what will not work.

Furthermore, this arrangement can help deflect criticism that the PEG resides in an ivory tower and has no firsthand feel for what is involved with getting the job done. This arrangement can be particularly effective if the technical manager supervises project managers. In this circumstance, the technical manager can get good insight into which ADPE practices make sense to standardize by observing actual results on multiple projects.

This circumstance also offers the PEG the opportunity to enrich ADPE element content by offering examples of different ways that certain principles laid out in ADPE elements can be implemented. For instance, regarding an ADPE element defining CCB practices, a technical manager of project managers has an opportunity to see different ways in which CCB meeting information requirements are satisfied in meeting minutes. One project may choose to record verbatim CCB discussions and associated decisions, while another project may simply choose to condense such information into a sentence or two per discussion/decision.

This spectrum of practice will help the PEG refine the guidance in a CCB ADPE element regarding what makes sense to record at a CCB meeting. PEG credibility is absolutely essential if that organization is to be successful in fulfilling its primary mission transitioning the software systems development process from ill-defined to well-defined development practices via ADPE implementation. Why Boiled down to its essence, the ADPE is a prescription for acceptable engineering social behavior.

As Figure 7 6 implies, the practices set forth in the ADPE define the right engineering thing to do. These practices establish norms of software systems development behavior throughout an organization that help the system developer and the customer interact harmoniously. Over time, these norms become institutionalized, thereby precipitating software systems development cultural change within both the seller and the customer organizations.

In the absence of such norms, software systems development within an organization will invariably degenerate into process anarchy with little likelihood of consistent, successful process repeatability. However, it is basic human nature that people resist doing things in other people s ways. One reason for this resistance is that breaking habits (good, bad, or otherwise) is generally painful.

A corollary to this fact of life is that resistance tends to magnify the more experienced the individual is. Thus, for example, as shown in Figure 7 7, people such as Sam, Pam, and Ham within a seller organization may have become accustomed to doing things their own way. Their experience has taught them what is needed to get the job done.

They are naturally reluctant to cast aside what has worked for them in favor of some other process simply because it is for the greater organizational good. Thus, a critical element of PEG practice is to ensure that project staff is given.
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