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Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe in .NET Incoporate barcode 128 in .NET Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe

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Schmeller in the nineteenth century.108 The wordlist itself, headed Erklerung der alten Teutschen worten but with the running head Dictionarius, occupies thirteen pages of an octavo volume, covering about three hundred Old High German words with very brief glosses in modern German.109 It is, then, a modest production, but it is signi cant as a milestone.

The recovery of the textual and cultural heritage of ancient Germanic peoples had at last reached a stage in its maturity that made it possible to begin taking stock of the lexical heritage. At the end of the wordlist, the reader was told that an Old High German confession (not, incidentally, the one printed by Munster) with interlinear glosses into modern German followed, and was encouraged to use the wordlist to understand it, and then to move on to studying the text of Otfrid with the help of the wordlist.110 The copy of the edition now in the Kongelige Bibliotek at Copenhagen shows just this process being undertaken: an early owner (apparently a speaker of Dutch) has added a dozen glosses to the wordlist, has supplied a missing interlinear gloss in the confession, and has made glosses in the text of Otfrid.

111 Lazius description of the maker and language of the Nibelungenlied as Gothicus is a reminder that that word was used by the mid-sixteenth century to mean ancient Germanic as well as of the Goths . That poem is in the language variety now called Middle High German, and its principal characters are Burgundians. But the people whom we know as Goths were objects of interest in their own right in early modern Europe.

From the fteenth century onwards, Gothic ancestry had been a source of pride to certain European peoples. For instance, both Swedish and Spanish delegates to the Council of Basel in 1434 claimed precedence as representatives of monarchs of Gothic, and therefore ancient, descent: early medieval. For Junius on O ld Saxon, see his remarks on his transcript of the Heliand, now Bodleian MS Junius 103, quoted Dekker, Franciscus Junius 289. 109 Otfrid, Euangeliorum liber sigs. d1r 7r.

110 Otfrid, Euangeliorum liber sig. d7r, Hie haben wir dir / gutiger Leser / hernacher gesetzt: Erstlich ein form der Alten Teutschen Beicht / darnach zwo Vorred dess Meisters dises Buchs: vnd die selbige[n] / souil muglich gewesen / auff jetzige breuchlichste Teutsche spraach vertollmetschet / vnd gegen einander gesetzt / damit das du das vorgesetzt Dictionarium, vnd auch das gantz Buch / souil fuglicher gebrauchen / vn[d] geringer verson mochtest. Vale, & fruere.

The confession is Steinmeyer, Kleineren althochdeutschen Sprachdenkmaler 327 9 (item 48). 111 The copy is now Copenhagen: Kongelige Biblioteket 175:2, 88; for the annotator as Dutch speaker, see the gloss of zuuene ni gisuonta at sig. d8r as bewieent niet myn sondes .

It was in Denmark by 1751, since a yleaf is endorsed Exemplar hoc in auctione Fossii pretio 4 4 8 venditum e[st] (Bibl. Foss. [i.

e., Bibliotheca Fossiana, the auction catalogue of the library of Niels Foss, sold in 1751, from which the Kongelige Bibliotek bought many volumes] pag. 485.

no. 1365.) , but its earlier history is not evident.

. Germany and the Netherlands 1500 1618 Spain had had V isigothic monarchs, and Scandinavia had some claim to be the Gothic homeland.112 Sixteenth-century German scholars were interested in the Goths as heroic ancestors of their own.113 They knew of them from authors who wrote in Latin and Greek, such as Procopius, Jordanes and St Isidore of Seville.

They knew in particular that the Goths had had their own language, and inspection of personal names such as Ermanaric (cf. Hermann) and Theodoric (cf. Dietrich) must have suggested that this language was related to German, though other theories were oated.

114 They knew from Isidore that the language of the Goths had been written down, though they may reasonably have doubted that any manuscripts were extant. By the second quarter of the sixteenth century, the story that Goths who spoke a language like German were still living on the coast of the Black Sea had been recorded by Willibald Pirkheimer and others, but these Goths did not appear to write their language.115 The surprising thing is that there actually was and still is an extant manuscript of a long text in Gothic: a Gospel-book written in the sixth century, which preserves part of the translation of the Bible into Gothic made by Ul las in the fourth century.

It is written in the distinctive Gothic alphabet, on purple vellum, in silver letters, which give it its familiar name, the Codex Argenteus. It was already incomplete by the sixteenth century, and had at one time come apart and been rebound with some of the pages out of order, but it was still an impressive object impressive enough, indeed, for someone to have taken the trouble to rebind it even though he could not read it, and therefore could not put the leaves in the right sequence.116 It came to the attention of two natives of Bruges, Georg Cassander and Cornelius Wouters, both of whom resided in Cologne and made a number of visits to libraries in the region, when they were in the library of the Benedictine abbey of Werden, on the river Ruhr about forty miles from Cologne.

A letter of 1554 refers to a Gothic alphabet and the Lord s Prayer in Gothic which were by then in their possession; these were unquestionably transcribed by them from the Codex Argenteus.117 Gothic. 112 113 114. 115 116. Klindt-Jensen, Code 128B for .NET History of Scandinavian archaeology 11. Brough, Goths and the concept of Gothic 22ff.

See Borchardt, German antiquity in Renaissance myth 30 (Gothic as Slavonic), 158 (Gothic as Old Prussian). Brough, Goths and the concept of Gothic 67f.; Stearns, Crimean Gothic 6 9.

The out-of-sequence leaves are reported in Jan Gruter, Inscriptiones antiquae (1602) 146, reproduced Van de Velde, Studie van het Gotisch in de Nederlanden, plate facing p. 40: diruptum, & nullo ordine ignorantia compactoris colligatum . The classic summary and discussion of the sparse documentation of the rediscovery of the Codex Argenteus is Schulte, Gothica minora: Erster Artikel , editing the letter that provides the rst evidence, from Caspar von Niedbruck to Cassander and Wouters, 6 June 1554, at 57 8.

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