Contactless Cards in .NET Add gs1 datamatrix barcode in .NET Contactless Cards

Contactless Cards use .net data matrix maker todisplay barcode data matrix with .net Internatioanl Orgnization for Standardization Contactless sma Data Matrix ECC200 for .NET rt cards are a variant which makes use of a wireless communication mechanism between the card and the card reader. A contactless card contains an embedded ICC but does not require a contact face plate on the front of the card.

Rather, an antenna is embedded within the plastic body of the card. This antenna is connected to the ICC. The card, or more correctly the card antenna, must be brought into physical proximity to a card reader, which also includes an antenna.

Power, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is transmitted from the reader antenna and is received by the card"s antenna. The power received is quite small, but it is sufficient to power the on-card ICC. Once power is received by the card and applied to the on-card ICC, a communication protocol is initiated between the card and the host computer.

Most contactless cards make use of two distinct frequencies for this communication channel, which allows a full duplex channel to be created. Data is transferred between the card and the host at approximately 100 Kbps. Contactless cards are most useful for transactions where it is reasonable to assume that possession of the card is adequate authorization for participation in the transaction(s) that the card supports.

Paying a toll at a tollbooth, or opening a door that many people use are good examples of such transactions. In such systems, the cardholder is not authenticated to the card as a prelude to the transaction. During the course of this book, we will, from time to time, discuss the ramifications of using contactless smart cards.

However, our main thrust will always be contactbased cards.. Combination Cards Another variant Data Matrix barcode for .NET of the smart card features a card with both a contactless ICC and a contact-based ICC. These two processors may be interconnected on the card or they may operate autonomously.

This type of card is of particular use for supporting operations that require specific cardholder authentication and other operations that only require possession of the card. The latter is typical of transportation systems, while the former is typical of credit or debit card operations. While combi-cards have some very useful applications, it should be remembered that having two processors on the card, particularly if they are interconnected, goes against one of the main tenets of smart cards; that is, the monolithic processor and memory combination of the smart card ICC makes it harder to effect a physical attack against the card.

. ICC Architecture The generally r Data Matrix 2d barcode for .NET ecognized (most secure) smart card packaging approach consists of putting the CPU, all the memory, and the I/O electronics into the same ICC, rather. than presenting them in the form of various chips, which are then tied together through electrical connections of some type. Why is this simple packaging approach so profound Because it provides all the necessary capabilities in a very small physical package and it conceals the interconnections between the various computer elements inside the chip itself, thereby enhancing the security of what"s going on (or what"s stored) in the computer. Once the elements of the computer are integrated into a single chip, it becomes very difficult for an outside observer to intercept signals flowing among the various elements and to subsequently discern the information content of those signals.

The connection to the outside world through which information flows is a simple I/O port that can be guarded to a large extent by the processor included within the chip. This is done through the use of high-level telecommunications protocols through which the chip"s processor element filters all information passed to or from the other components of the chip. Through these protocols, it is possible to require authentication of the identity of the reader-side program that is communicating with the computer on the smart card.

In this manner, the smart card can protect itself by communicating only with entities that can prove who they are and that the smart card"s computer trusts. In addition to enhancing the security of the smart card, the ICC packaging also provides a small unit that is amenable to being embedded in a credit card-sized card, which can be carried on the person of the card bearer. When embedded in the plastic card and carried, for example, in a person"s wallet, the chip is subject to a variety of physical forces.

The card is bent and flexed and might be subjected to sudden shocks. In typical electronic equipment, in which components are tied together through macroscopic electrical wiring or even conducting lines on a printed circuit board, this physical environment is an excellent recipe for many failures. When all the elements are packaged in a single chip, however, the stresses tend to be applied to all the elements equally.

So, if the chip itself can hold together, then the components will tend to operate successfully. Empirical evidence indicates that when chips are reduced to a size of approximately 25 square millimeters (in roughly a square configuration) they are able to withstand the day-to-day stresses encountered through normal credit card-type uses. Achieving these small sizes for the chip to be embedded in a smart card is dependent on several criteria: the resolution of the technology used for the chip, which is often characterized by "feature size" (e.

g., the size of a single transistor element within the chip) in microns the width of the internal bus of the processor (i.e.

, is it 8 bits, 16 bits, 32 bits, or 64 bits ) the type of memory utilized auxiliary elements (such as power line frequency, voltage filters, and memory-mapping registers) included in the chip for security or functionality reasons. The small size ECC200 for .NET needed for chip features requires leading-edge technology. However, in order for chips to be inexpensive and reliable, we often need to turn to older, more mature technologies.

The makeup of memory, that is the amount of ROM, EEPROM, and RAM is a design decision based on the amounts of each memory. necessary to ad dress particular problem areas. To meet the constraints of the physical environment, ICCs generally do not exceed 25 mm2. At the same time, the amount of chip area required to implement the various types of memory varies significantly, as shown in Figure 2.

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