Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe in .NET Access Code 128 Code Set A in .NET Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe

Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe using .net vs 2010 tointegrate code128b on web,windows application Oracle Reports Service poets.96 Th Code 128 Code Set C for .NET e rst seventeen entries, from Homer to the Greek Anthology, are all indicated as ex editione Henr[ici] Steph[ani] , i.

e., as texts for which he had used his own editions. The names of four poets for whom he had used Aldine editions followed, then the next two (Aeschylus and Sophocles) were identi ed as from his own editions; two more Aldine authors followed, and the list closed with Pindar and the fragmentary lyric poets from his own edition.

The dictionary was, therefore, at the centre of an extraordinary network of printed books in which Estienne laboured almost single-handedly, it might appear to rearticulate the scattered remains of ancient Greek culture. A reader could nd a word in the index, nd its place in the etymological structure of Greek in the main text of the dictionary, go from the illustrative quotations in the dictionary entry to occurrences of the word in ancient texts, and, depending on the text, perhaps go on to its commentary to get a fuller sense of the word s cultural signi cance. That process of cultural reconstruction could be repeated again and again, always with the dictionary as the starting-point.

A poem that Henri composed and printed in his translation of the Greek bucolic poets shows the same sense of cultural recovery working in his mind: looking at what he supposed to be the virtuous simplicity of the peasantry whom he saw as he travelled, he started to think of them as the poor remains of an ancient culture of rustic goodness the sort of culture that is given a voice in one of his favourite poets, Hesiod, and in the bucolic poets themselves and to imagine a golden age being reborn from them, just as if they were the textual fragments that would be the keys to the cultures of antiquity.97 The learned young man re ecting on the peasantry with his head full of Greek verse sounds like a gure from the nineteenth century as much as one from the sixteenth but that is a point that should not be pushed too far. The Greek heritage changes from generation to generation.

98 The Greek textual heritage as Henri experienced it was not quite the same as ours. We can see this when we look at the texts from which he quoted in the Thesaurus, examining a sample of approximately 2500 citations.99 In this.

98 99. H. Estienne barcode code 128 for .NET , TGL i:7; an earlier version of the list is in H.

Estienne, Epistola . . .

de suae typographiae statu 62 4. H. Estienne, Idyllion, in via scriptum, itidem in laudem vitae rusticae in his trans.

of Moschus, Bion and Theocritus, Idyllia sigs. E3v E4v at E4v, O gens antiqui tam paruae tempore nostro . Reliquiae generis, tandem aurea posse renasci Ex te secl .net framework code128b a puto, dum vrbis contagia vites. Cf.

Jenkyns, Victorians and ancient Greece. The sample was obtained by working through the entries for N in H. Estienne, Thesaurus graecae linguae (1831 65), excluding square-bracketed (i.

e., post-Estienne) material from consideration. The gures should be regarded as approximate.

. Henri Estienne and his world sample, 420 Code 128A for .NET , or about one in six, are from Homer, the Iliad being cited rather more frequently than the Odyssey. Clearly Homer was the author whom Henri most nearly knew by heart, and to whom he turned whenever he wanted a quotation for a given lexical item.

There are three references to my manuscript of Homer , which Henri had mentioned previously in his preface to the Poetae graeci principes of 1566; this was a late Byzantine manuscript of the Iliad with some scholia that were not available in the standard printed edition of the scholia on Homer.100 No other author rivals him in importance; the second most frequently quoted is Plutarch (whom Henri was editing as he worked on the Thesaurus) from whom there are about 200 citations, i.e.

, 8 per cent of the total. Then there is a marked gap again between Plutarch and the author in third place, Aristotle, who is cited about 110 times, over 4 per cent of the total. The next four authors are all major canonical gures, and are all cited with similar frequency: Xenophon 94 times, Aristophanes 87 times, Thucydides 85 times, Plato 84 times.

The next three, however, are now rather less frequently read: in eighth place is the lexicographer Pollux, cited 80 times in the sample; in ninth place, cited 76 times, is Athenaeus, whom Erasmus had used in manuscript for his work on the Adagia; in tenth place, cited 72 times, is Eustathios, the major Byzantine commentator on Homer, whom Erasmus had also read in manuscript during his Aldine days. A striking presence among the most-cited authors in the sample is Bude, whose name appears 53 times, sometimes only as the intermediate source for a quotation, but often as a source of philological commentary. A few other sixteenth-century authors appear: Erasmus eight times, Lazare de Ba f twice (as a source for ancient marine vocabulary), and ` Adrien Turnebe three times (for words in Philo s De vita Mosis and Plutarch s De primo frigido, which he had edited).

There are a number of self-citations, directing readers to Henri s Lexicon ciceronianum for Cicero s understanding of m oy in the senses young man, child , and to his commentary on Sophocles for that author s fondness for the verb m lx. But there is less of a sense of the whole nation of the lettered as consultants and contributors than there had been in the Latinae linguae thesaurus. Henri s own world is brought more noticeably into the dictionary in his comparisons of Greek usages with French ones so that.

The manuscr ipt is now Geneva, MS graecus 44, identi ed Nicole, Scolies genevoises de l Iliade i:ix xiii and discussed Scholia graeca in Homeri Iliadem (1969 88) i:xxi xxii and lvi lix; Henri remarks in Poetae graeci principes sig. **3v that readings in Eustathius agree cu[m] meo veteri codice against those of all printed editions of Homer..

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