Philology and lexicography in .NET Paint barcode 128 in .NET Philology and lexicography

Philology and lexicography using barcode generating for none control to generate, create none image in none applications. QR Code Safty in the second ha none none lf of the 1520s and partly one of marketing. Estienne wanted to make a better dictionary than Calepino s, but he did not want entirely to turn his back on the market that Calepino dominated. So, the dictionary that Estienne published in 1531 was meant to be marketable both to students and to learned persons.

104 In his subsequent lexicography, Estienne made a division between two classes of dictionary, one aiming at scholarly de nitiveness and one meant for the educational market. This distinction was in fact called for by Vives in 1531: a dictionary of the Latin language should be put together from all of these [i.e.

,the classic ancient authors], because none is suf ciently full and accurate. It should be in two parts, the one a simple wordlist with brief equivalents added, and the other with illustrative quotations added quite plentifully. 105 Estienne started to make the division in his lexicographical practice in 1536, when he brought out a second edition of the Thesaurus.

This was enlarged with new Latin material, and had fuller French translations. It also included proper names, on the ground that although they might not be part of the linguistic core of the language, they were of cultural importance (they were also marketable, as Estienne knew from the success with which he had published onomastica).106 It was typographically more sophisticated than its predecessor, being printed in two columns, so that although there were actually fewer leaves than in 1531 (898, down from 940), more material was still included.

This edition of the Thesaurus cost a hundred and ten shillings, more than twice as much as any other item sold by the business.107 A third edition appeared in 1543, with the legend editio secunda on its title-page, as if the 1531 and 1536 dictionaries had been two versions of what was basically a single edition.108 It was a much bigger book than either of them, comprising 1584 leaves printed in double columns (it therefore tends to be bound in three volumes, whereas they are bound in two), and was priced accordingly, at ten francs (still reasonable if, as Henri Estienne was to claim, the.

104 105. 106 107. Brandon, Robert Estienne 40. Vives, De tradendis disciplinis lib. 3, 291, Ex quibus vniuersis con etur dictionarium Latinae linguae, quod nullum est plenum satis & iustum.

Istudque sit duplex, alterum enumeratione tantum vocabulorum, breui interpretatione adiecta, alterum copiosius dictis authorum intermistis. For the onomastica, see Starnes, Robert Estienne s in uence on lexicography 86ff. R.

Estienne, Libri in of cina Rob[ erti] Stephani partim nati, partim restituti & excusi sig. A3v; the next most expensive item was a legal handbook, Promptuarium iuris, at 50s (sig. A8r).

Another explanation is that Estienne ignored the 1531 edition in his numbering because it n etoit ` a ses yeux qu une ebauche, et devoit desormais etre consideree comme non avenue (Renouard, Annales 57).. Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe Thesaurus projec t cost thirty thousand francs in all).109 In it, the French translations were abandoned, and the Latin coverage was much more extensive, the title-page proclaiming a new addition of material, so that there shall be virtually nothing worthy of note in the works of orators, historians, poets, and, in short, writers of every kind, which the reader shall not have readily available for him here .110 So, Estienne had moved from a dictionary based on Plautus and Terence in 1531 to one documenting all the signi cant Latinity of every kind of author in 1543.

As the Thesaurus itself became bigger, more learned, and more expensive, so the range of publications descended from it increased.111 A rst abridged version, omitting a few obsolete or uncommon words and without the references to classical authors, but with the rest of the vocabulary explained in the language of the fatherland (sermone patrio, a phrase that recurs in sixteenth-century comments on linguistic heritage), appeared in a single folio volume as the Dictionarium latinogallicum in 1538; four more editions followed.112 Next came a French Latin dictionary, Dictionaire francoislatin, in 1539 40, with a number of further editions, notably one by Jean Thierry, a former assistant on the Latinae linguae thesaurus, a descendant being Jean Nicot s Thresor de la langue francoyse of 113 1606, a landmark of French vernacular lexicography.

These were by no means pocket dictionaries the last two editions of the Dictionarium latinogallicum are both folios of 1430 pages but they were less than half the size of the big Thesaurus. They were meant to contribute to the establishment of the prestige of the French language. As early as the rst edition of the Dictionarium latinogallicum, Estienne was pointing out the usefulness of setting forth a hidden treasure in our language , in other words of making texts written in Latin available to Francophones.

114 By the second edition of the Dictionnaire francoislatin in 1549, he had gone considerably further, adding French words from his own reading (including words taken. 113 114. For the gure of ten francs, see Renouard, Annales 55; for that of thirty thousand, see H. Estienne, Les premices sig. *6r, son Thresor de la langue Latine (dont tant le receuil que l impression luy ` uenoyent a plus de trente mille francs) .

R. Estienne, LLT (1543), title-page, nunc accessione, ut nihil propemodum observatu dignum sit apud oratores, historicos, poetas, omnis denique generis scriptores, quod hic non promptum paratumque habeat . An enumerative overview of all Estienne s dictionaries is given in Brandon, Robert Estienne 116 23, and a discursive one in Armstrong, Robert Estienne 88 9.

R. Estienne, Dictionarium latinogallicum, title-page, thesauro nostro ita ex adverso respondens, ut extra pauca quaedam aut obsoleta: aut minus in usu necessaria vocabula, & quas consulto praetermisimus, authorum appellationes, in hoc eadem sint omnia, eodem ordine, sermone patrio explicata . See Wooldridge, Les debuts de la lexicographie francaise 17 36, esp.

18. Quoted Renouard, Annales 47, Latentem adhuc linguae nostrae gazam exponere. .

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