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Studying Management and Leadership Behavior in .NET Creator barcode 3 of 9 in .NET Studying Management and Leadership Behavior

Studying Management and Leadership Behavior use none none generator touse none on none .NET Framework We do not know none for none enough about the actual behavior of effective managers and leaders. If we are going to develop training for management and leadership, and evaluate the effectiveness of that training, we need to know what behavior we are aiming to develop. Organizational psychologists are surprisingly dependent upon questionnaire methods; study of actual human behavior is extremely rare.

One can easily imagine that people could know all the right answers to one of Sternberg s measures of tacit knowledge of leadership ( Hedlund et al., 2003 ), but be unable to successfully execute that right answer in their behavior. Studying actual human behavior is much more time consuming, tedious, and difficult to arrange than passing out questionnaires.

Outside the field of organizational behavior, however, there have been research studies that use ethological methods or so-called ethnographic methods. For example, there have been a few developmental studies of the establishment of dominance relationships among children or adolescents, parallel to more common studies of dominance relationships among groups of animals ( Savin-Williams, 1976 ; Strayer & Strayer, 1976 ; Zivin, 1977 ). Zivin described detailed observational studies of interactions among groups of children using videotapes that were then subjected to very detailed analyses.

She identified what she called a win predicting facial expression. The expression was defined by the simultaneous presence of a raised brow, a direct stare toward someone s eye, and a raised. Chipman chin. Because none for none of the effect of talking on the position of the mouth, mouth position was not part of the coding scheme. However, the one photographic example of the expression in the article shows what I would call a look of determination to which the position of the mouth contributes greatly.

I believe that the Washington Post once captured this expression in a front page photo of President Jimmy Carter, the day before he won an important treaty vote in the Senate. These expressions were related to a ranking of individuals by perceived toughness, as rated by the children themselves. It was shown that the children interpreted toughness as meaning strong in fighting or in getting what one wants from someone else.

There were very few physical fights in the study population. According to Zivin, in the older of the two age groups she studied (7 to 10 years of age), this expression tended to become very swift and fleeting and was used as a sort of haughty emphasis to conversational points. Not surprisingly, there were obvious sex differences in the rankings of the children girls tended to be in the middle or lower ranks at both age groups studied, although one or two girls were in the top quarter of each group, and the earlier study by Strayer and Strayer found that the top ranking child was a girl.

Such politically incorrect results may have made such research unpopular in recent years. Detailed behavioral analysis has also been used to study the classroom management behavior of schoolteachers to provide guidance for teacher training ( Thomas, Becker, & Armstrong, 1968 ). We have all encountered those few teachers and school administrators who seem to have outstanding command and control over even difficult student groups.

Similar behavioral analysis of managers and leaders in action would, I believe, have great value. When I was attempting to understand the behavior of my fellow students at the HBS, I came to believe that a lot of it was about struggling to establish a dominance hierarchy. For example, their behavior in small group discussion activities differed strikingly from what I had been used to seeing among Harvard undergraduates.

Whether or not they actually cared about the topic of the discussion, HBS students would struggle to take charge of the discussion. Harvard undergraduates would not bother with a discussion that they did not care about. It also seemed to explain the strange behavior of a student who once clearly lost to me in a classroom discussion.

It seemed to me that he overreacted to this loss in a very extreme way: Ever afterward, he was out to get me in the classrooms. The product of elite private schools, he had never been in a classroom with female students before; this, I believe, allowed him to maintain the belief that all females were inferior to all males. Therefore, I think, losing to me was equivalent to losing to all other males, explaining the overreaction.

However, even stranger, he was also a Southern gentleman and behaved very graciously toward me in outside social situations. The prototypic goal of the HBS student is to become the boss, the CEO, the person who gets other people to do what he wants. To be the decider, .

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