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$ cat quote_demo twoliner="This is line 1. This is line 2." echo "$twoliner" echo $twoliner in .NET Make EAN-13 Supplement 2 in .NET $ cat quote_demo twoliner="This is line 1. This is line 2." echo "$twoliner" echo $twoliner

$ cat quote_demo twoliner="This is line 1. This is line 2." echo "$twoliner" echo $twoliner using barcode printer for .net control to generate, create gtin-13 image in .net applications. Beaware of Malicious QR Codes a. How many argum EAN 13 for .NET ents does each echo command see in this script Explain.

b. Redefine the IFS shell variable so that the output of the second echo is the same as the first. 12.

Add the exit status of the previous command to your prompt so that it behaves similarly to the following:. $ [0] ls xxx ls: xxx: No such file or directory $ [1]. 13. The dirname u ean13 for .NET tility treats its argument as a pathname and writes to standard output the path prefix that is, everything up to but not including the last component:.

$ dirname a/b/c/d a/b/c If you give dirna .net framework UPC-13 me a simple filename (no / characters) as an argument, dirname writes a . to standard output:.

370 9 The Bourne Again Shell $ dirname simple . Implement dirname as a bash function. Make sure that it behaves sensibly when given such arguments as /. 14.

Implement the basename utility, which writes the last component of its pathname argument to standard output, as a bash function. For example, given the pathname a/b/c/d, basename writes d to standard output:. $ basename a/b/c/d d 15. The Linux bas ename utility has an optional second argument. If you give the command basename path suffix, basename removes the suffix and the prefix from path:.

$ basename src/shellfiles/prog.bash .bash prog $ basename src/shellfiles/prog.bash .c prog.bash Add this feature to the function you wrote for exercise 14. Networking and the Internet In This Types of Networks .NET European Article Number 13 and How They Work. .

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. 373 Network Protocols. .

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. 390 ping: Tests a Network Connection. .

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393 traceroute: Traces a Route over the Internet . . .

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. 394 host and dig: Query Internet Nameservers . .

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. 396 Distributed Computing . .

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. 397 Usenet . .

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. . 407 WWW: World Wide Web .

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. 409. The communication s facilities linking computers are continually improving, allowing faster and more economical connections. The earliest computers were unconnected stand-alone systems. To transfer information from one system to another, you had to store it in some form (usually magnetic tape, paper tape, or punch cards called IBM or Hollerith cards), carry it to a compatible system, and read it back in.

A notable advance occurred when computers began to exchange data over serial lines, although the transfer rate was slow (hundreds of bits per second). People quickly invented new ways to take advantage of this computing power, such as email, news retrieval, and bulletin board services. With the speed of today s networks, a piece of email can cross the country or even travel halfway around the world in a few seconds.

. 10 10 . Today it would be difficult to find a computer facility that does not include a LAN to link its systems. Linux systems are typically attached to an Ethernet (page 1147) network. Wireless networks are also prevalent.

Large computer facilities usually maintain several networks, often of different types, and almost certainly have connections to larger networks (companywide or campuswide and beyond).. 372 10 Networking and the Internet Internet The Internet is a .NET European Article Number 13 loosely administered network of networks (an internetwork) that links computers on diverse LANs around the globe. An internet (small i) is a generic network of networks that may share some parts in common with the public Internet.

It is the Internet that makes it possible to send an email message to a colleague thousands of miles away and receive a reply within minutes. A related term, intranet, refers to the networking infrastructure within a company or other institution. Intranets are usually private; access to them from external networks may be limited and carefully controlled, typically using firewalls (page 379).

Over the past decade many network services have emerged and become standardized. On Linux and UNIX systems, special processes called daemons (page 1144) support such services by exchanging specialized messages with other systems over the network. Several software systems have been created to allow computers to share filesystems with one another, making it appear as though remote files are stored on local disks.

Sharing remote filesystems allows users to share information without knowing where the files physically reside, without making unnecessary copies, and without learning a new set of utilities to manipulate them. Because the files appear to be stored locally, you can use standard utilities (such as cat, vim, lpr, mv, or their graphical counterparts) to work with them. Developers have created new tools and extended existing ones to take advantage of higher network speeds and to work within more crowded networks.

The rlogin, rsh, and telnet utilities, which were designed long ago, have largely been supplanted by ssh (secure shell, page 663) in recent years. The ssh utility allows a user to log in on or execute commands securely on a remote computer. Users rely on such utilities as scp and ftp to transfer files from one system to another across the network.

Communication utilities, including email utilities and chat programs (e.g., talk, Internet Relay Chat [IRC], ICQ, and instant messenger [IM] programs, such as AOL s AIM and Pidgin) have become so prevalent that many people with very little computer expertise use them on a daily basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and colleagues.

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