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$ chmod 600 letter.0610 $ ls -l letter.0610 -rw------- 1 max pubs 3355 2010-06-22 12:44 letter.0610 in .NET Print EAN 13 in .NET $ chmod 600 letter.0610 $ ls -l letter.0610 -rw------- 1 max pubs 3355 2010-06-22 12:44 letter.0610

$ chmod 600 letter.0610 $ ls -l letter.0610 -rw------- 1 max pubs 3355 2010-06-22 12:44 letter.0610 use .net vs 2010 european article number 13 printing toencode european article number 13 on .net iPad Next, 7 (4 + 2 + 1) g VS .NET ean13+2 ives the owner read, write, and execute permissions. The 5 (4 + 1) gives the group and other users read and execute permissions:.

$ chmod 755 check_spell $ ls -l check_spell -rwxr-xr-x 1 max pubs 852 2010-07-31 13:47 check_spell Refer to Table 6-2 for more examples of numeric permissions. Table 6-2. Mode 777 755 711 644 640. Examples of numeric permission specifications Meaning Owner, group, and oth ers can read, write, and execute file Owner can read, write, and execute file; group and others can read and execute file Owner can read, write, and execute file; group and others can execute file Owner can read and write file; group and others can read file Owner can read and write file, group can read file, and others cannot access file. Refer to page 300 for .net vs 2010 GTIN-13 more information on using chmod to make a file executable and to the chmod man page for information on absolute arguments and chmod in general. Refer to page 492 for more information on groups.

. Setuid and Setgid Permissions When you execute a fi UPC-13 for .NET le that has setuid (set user ID) permission, the process executing the file takes on the privileges of the file s owner. For example, if you run a.

Access Permissions 219 setuid program that r .net vs 2010 EAN-13 emoves all files in a directory, you can remove files in any of the file owner s directories, even if you do not normally have permission to do so. In a similar manner, setgid (set group ID) permission gives the process executing the file the privileges of the group the file is associated with.

. Minimize use of setui d and setgid programs owned by root security Executable files that are setuid and owned by root have root privileges when they run, even if they. are not run by root. ean13+2 for .NET This type of program is very powerful because it can do anything that root can do (and that the program is designed to do).

Similarly executable files that are setgid and belong to the group root have extensive privileges. Because of the power they hold and their potential for destruction, it is wise to avoid indiscriminately creating and using setuid programs owned by root and setgid programs belonging to the group root. Because of their inherent dangers, many sites minimize the use of these programs on their systems.

One necessary setuid program is passwd. See page 421 for a tip on setuid files owned by root and page 454 for a command that lists setuid files on the local system..

The following example shows a user working with root privileges and using symbolic arguments to chmod to give one program setuid privileges and another program setgid privileges. The ls l output (page 215) shows setuid permission by displaying an s in the owner s executable position and setgid permission by displaying an s in the group s executable position:. $ ls -l myprog* -rwxr Visual Studio .NET EAN-13 -xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog1 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog2 $ sudo chmod u+s myprog1 $ sudo chmod g+s myprog2 $ ls -l myprog* -rwsr-xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog1 -rwxr-sr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog2. The next example uses numeric arguments to chmod to make the same changes. When you use four digits to specify permissions, setting the first digit to 1 sets the sticky bit (page 1174), setting it to 2 specifies setgid permissions, and setting it to 4 specifies setuid permissions:. $ ls -l myprog* -rwxr VS .NET EAN13 -xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog1 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog2 $ sudo chmod 4755 myprog1 $ sudo chmod 2755 myprog2 $ ls -l myprog* -rwsr-xr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog1 -rwxr-sr-x 1 root pubs 19704 2010-07-31 14:30 myprog2. Do not write setuid s hell scripts security Never give shell scripts setuid permission. Several techniques for subverting them are well known..

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